Structure, Function, And Other Properties Of DNA

Structure, Function, And Other Properties Of DNA

DNA is a nucleic acid that composes genes in the cell nucleus. In it, all biological information is stored from every living thing and some viruses. Not only in the cell nucleus, but DNA is also present in the mitochondria, chloroplasts, centrioles, plastids, to the cytoplasm. Meanwhile, perhaps you also want to know more about biologia molecular.

DNA structure

DNA is a large complex molecule consisting of two long twisted bands forming a double helix, with each ribbon being a polymer from hundreds to thousands of nucleotides. Each nucleotide consists of:

Pentose deoxyribose sugar, a pentose sugar (atomic 5C) which loses one oxygen atom.

The phosphate group, which is bound to C number 5 from pentose sugar.

Nitrogen base, which is bound to number 1 C atoms of pentose sugar.

Chemical Bonds in the DNA Chain

Phosphodiester bond, which is a chemical bond between a phosphate group from one nucleotide and sugar from the next nucleotide.
Hydrogen bonds, which are chemical bonds between nitrogen base pairs.

The bond between deoxyribose sugar and nitrogen base:

Deoxyadenosine monophosphate (dAMP): between deoxyribose sugar and an adenine base.

Deoxyguanosine monophosphate (dGMP): between deoxyribose sugar and a guanine base.

Deoxycytidine monophosphate (CMP): between deoxyribose sugar and cytosine base.

Deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP): between deoxyribose sugar and the thymine base.

DNA function

Bringing genetic information.

Has a role in inheritance.

Express genetic information.

Synthesize other chemical molecules.

Self-duplicate or replicate.

Properties of DNA

The amount of DNA is constant in each cell type and species.

The DNA content in cells depends on the nature of ploidy or the number of chromosomes.

The form of DNA in the eukaryotic cell nucleus is like a branched thread.

The form of DNA in the prokaryotic cell nucleus, plastid, and circular mitochondria.

DNA replication

Replication or self-duplicating process occurs when interfacing before the cell divides with the aim that the daughter cells resulting from cleavage contain DNA that is identical to the stem cell DNA. If there is an error in this process, the properties of the daughter cells will change.

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